Chapters Three and Four of this book demonstrate that by equally specious or fair-seeming arguments, the existence of God may be both proved and disproved. The law of contradictions stipulates that A and not-A cannot both be true at the same time and in the same respect. But this implies that A and not-A may both be true at the same time in different respects.
The most widely known example of this is the dual nature of light, which behaves like a wave in some respects, but in other respects it is not a wave, but a stream of particles.
Likewise, the extremes of theology and science - God and not-God - may both be true explanations of the cosmos, when looked at from different points of view. Similarly, the Chinese Tao or "Great Way" harmonizes the opposites of yin and yang, and the Buddhist "Middle Path" avoids the existential extremes of being and not-being.
As expounded by the philosopher Georg Hegel (1770 - 1831), dialectical logic is premised on growth through the apparent opposition of antinomies, or contradictions, which do not "add up" in elementary terms, but nevertheless may be harmonized and incorporated in a more comprehensive and 'tuneful' understanding.
The triadic structure of dialectical logic allows otherwise intractable contradictions to be transformed into triune relationships, in which the third dimension may be seen to balance or compensate the antagonism of the other two. Thus in general, the opposition of thesis and antithesis is reconciled in their dialectical synthesis.
Hegel applied this idea to history, and Marx to material socialism, with only modest success in each case. However, the understanding of the dialectic of the divine idea and the mundane reality synthesized in ultimate associative consciousness has an altogether more fundamental meaning, which points to the threefold metaphysical basis of creation.
The 'Absolute' is an expression that has been used with various shades of meaning by many philosophers, but its modern definition and signification are due to Georg Hegel, the great idealist philosopher.
"In philosophy, the Highest is called the Absolute, the Idea… that which we call the Absolute has a meaning identical with the expression God." - Hegel quoted in Philosophy of Religion - J. E. Smith. P.107.
"(Hegel also held that)… the totality of all things… is the Absolute Idea." Four Philosophies - J. D. Butler. P.135.
Hegel held that the Absolute is the Highest, the Absolute Idea is the "totality of all things," and that which we call Absolute is God. Experientially, the totality of all things is the universe, and this Universe Absolute Supreme Being is the experiential antithesis counterpart of the existential Deity Absolute Creator thesis. On the other hand, if by "the totality," Hegel means both the mundane and the divine, then he is referring to the unconditioned or unqualified totality of all that is, and this Unconditioned Absolute is not the one, nor the other, but the transformation and synthesis - the reconciliation and fusion - of both.
Making things even more confusing, it must be noted that: In addition to the totality of the Universe Absolute Allsoul or 'gestalt' of human consciousness (Supreme Being), and the totality of the Unconditioned Absolute Spirit of "All That Is and is not," there is what might be called the totality of all three Absolutes (including the Deity Absolute Creator), as a manifold or 'corporate' entity - the Trinity Absolute.
"According to Buddhist philosophy, the absolute antithesis in which "A" stands against "not-A" is only possible when there is a third concept, as it were, bridging the two terms… Non-discrimination underlies the discrimination of… (its) antithesis." The Awakening of Zen - D. T. Suzuki edited by Christmas Humphreys, P.78.
"Zen expresses itself in the denial of opposites… The point is not to be 'caught,' as the masters would say, in any of the four propositions: (1) 'It is A'; (2) 'It is not-A'; (3) 'It is both A and not-A'; and, (4) 'It is neither A nor not-A.'" (This is the so-called Tetralemma based on the Discourses of Buddha - DN 1 - Brahmajala Sutta). Essays in Buddhism - D. T. Suzuki, P.275.
It should be noted that in the above Tetralemma, (3) "Both" is the positive one of two meanings allowed by the ambiguity of (4) " Neither" one nor the other (but possibly both). Something like this is seen in the Christian conception of the Glorified Spirit as both and neither. That is, the Holy Ghost is neither the spirit-person of the Father,nor the spirit-person of the Son, but the Holy Spirit proceeding from both.
In the ultimate analysis, antinomies may both be true in different respects, as the philosophers have shown. Plato perceived this truth as a mingling, melding, and fusion of the existential realm of the divine 'idea' with the experiential reality of the mundane world. Pythagoras (and Plato) saw it in mathematical terms as the All, which includes the One and the Many, in the unqualified totality of their source and sink.
Aristotle perceived this consummate coordinate as the "Golden Mean" of the central domain of statements which balance opposing extremes, particularly those arising when considering virtues, ethics, and human values.
The Greek philosophers and the German idealists were right to emphasize the importance of recognizing existential versus experiential consciousness, and their unconditioned ultimate synthesis. By many and fair-seeming arguments, for convenience of speaking, and because pure reason demands a beginning and a Creator; we contrast the thesis of the Deity Absolute with the equally specious argument that practical reason does not demand a beginning - only universal contingency - which is the Universe Absolute scientific antithesis of creationist theology.
Then, by the laws of dialectical logic, there is recognized a third argument of pure and practical reason - the Unconditioned Absolute synthesis, which is ultimately based on the perfection (unity) of the other two Absolutes - the spiritual, and the material - finally and eternally incorporated in the Trinity of all three.
Whereas some philosophers emphasized duality as the foundation of metaphysics, Hegel (as well as Plato, Kant, and others) saw through the dialectic of duality to the triad of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis as the necessary fundamental creative equation. Thus, in terms of the Absolute, the philosopher arrives at the metaphysical inevitability of the Trinity of the three Absolutes of Creation, i.e. thesis: the transcendentDeity Absolute; antithesis: the immanent Universe or "Universal" Absolute; and synthesis: the ultimate Unconditioned Absolute.
The freewill creation includes not only the existential or ethereal body of the idea, and its experiential reflection or physical embodiment in material reality, but also the absonite (a combination of absolutely infinite and absolutely finite) spirit of the associative consciousness from which both the idea and reflection spring, and into which they both mingle and meld. Neither finite nor infinite, but a consummation of both, absonite consciousness gives humans some degree of consciousness of the unconscious, which has no beginning and no ending.
The coordinate Unconditioned Absolute Spirit is that mysterious paradox - that ineffable third member of the Trinity Absolute - which may be alluded to in various ways, but not fully captured nor directly expressed (because not fully known, due to 'freedom' - God's seminal gift to the creation).
Ultimately, unconditioned consciousness (Nirvana) cannot be defined completely, but only formulated generally and glimpsed momentarily (although sometimes experienced vividly or felt profoundly). The formula is echoed in many variations of one underlying general pattern of thought and understanding - synthesis of thesis and antithesis, for example:
The one and the many composed in the all,
Unity and plurality sublimated in totality,
Egocentric and ethnocentric coordinated in worldcentric,
Intuition and reason consummated in wisdom,
Pure duty and practical utility blended in moral choice,
Heaven and earth integrated in All That Is,
Father and Son glorified in their Holy Spirit,
For Hegel the real is the rational, and in the ultimate analysis, it is rational that for the sake of necessary systematic unity, there must be an identity composed of opposites, and a synthesis consummating and completing a metaphysical basis of understanding for existence itself. The "dialectic" system of metaphysical unity can only resolve its contradictions in a synthesis, which composes the truth of thesis and antithesis, with respect to each other in time and place. The "synthetic unity" of the great antinomies or apparent contradictions has many expressions.
Substance is subject, as well as object. Self-consciousness is essence, in which there is an identity of thought and existence. Consciousness (will, reason, and love) creates reality and vice versa. Hegel suggests that the concept of the synthesis of dialectic reason is "the Absolute," but in Trinity Absolute terms, he may be said to be referring most often to the Unconditioned Absolute Consummation of All That Is - third of the three absolutes of creation.
Hegel maintained that essence and existence are actually interrelated in history, as well as philosophy. Unfortunately, the historical context led him to over-emphasize mass existence at the expense of individual essence. Politically, he put the state above the person - an emphasis which has since shown itself to be a blind alley. In terms of historical analysis, his attempted identification of the epochs or ages of human progress has also been only slightly more fruitful. Nevertheless, his basic insight that metaphysics is synthesis through dialectics remains seminal.
Hegel says that the substance of the self-determining unity in this process can only be understood as "force." In the cosmology of creation, this is the force of divine ideation, universal materialization, and ultimate consummation identified in the Trinity Absolute. In the psychology of the individual, this force is the personal freewill, rational mind, and indwelling spirit of the human soul.
In bestowing freewill, God set his creatures free to be co-creative. It may be said that the human soul is personality who wills, mind that reasons, and spirit which loves. More properly however, it is the whole soul that reasons, loves, and wills. One God is Creator of the cosmos, Supreme Architect of the Almighty Universe Allsoul, and also the Ultimate Spirit or general of the army of the "order of the whole," or the sum of all things (the binominal totality of All That Is), incorporated in the 'Trinomial' Absolute.
Georg Hegel provides the definitive explanation of the dualistic concept of the composition of 'reality,' as the necessary idea. In Platonic terms, this is the One and the Many - the unity thesis of pure existential reason (space/time, geometry, mathematics, cause/effect, sufficient reason, logic, morality, etc.), which apparently exists metaphysically before anything and after everything; and its plurality antithesis of experiential reality (empirical knowledge and practical reason), which is the self-conscious reality of which we have direct experience.
Timothy Mahoney says that the perfect self-diffusing goodness of the love of the Father explains the generation of the Son and procession of the Spirit. The three Persons - each distinct in his personhood and intimately related to the two remaining Persons - are collectively the Absolute. Individual identity is retained in divine union, for divine union is a perichoresis (dance) of the divine Persons with each other, with their creatures, and with their other creations, within the life of the Trinity. Part of this perichoresis or intimate fellowship and sharing is reflected in the dual nature of Christ. Human nature has been assumed by the Second Person of the Trinity, so that creation itself may be assumed into the life of the thrice-personal One God. Thus in Jesus, God becomes what we are, in order to make us what he is.
"One must say that the whole Trinity is the Absolute, rather than just the Father who is the initiating principle of the Trinitarian relations. It is precisely because the Father accomplishes the perfect self-diffusion of goodness by communicating to others 'His whole substance and nature' that we cannot accord the status of the Absolute to the Father alone. In so far as the same divine substance and nature is communicated without diminution to the Son and the Holy Spirit, they must be included in the Absolute. Thus, simplicity and multiplicity are the mark of the Absolute. In sum, the Christian finds (or should find) other metaphysical views deficient if they identify the 'Absolute' as something that in fact falls short of being the highest good, precisely in so far as the purported 'Absolute' lacks supreme (and ultimate) self-diffusive goodness because it cannot communicate its 'whole substance and nature.'" Christian Metaphysics: Trinity, Incarnation and Creation - T. A. Mahoney (26/12/07), P.5. - Internet.
"In the Christian description of union with God, an individual's 'participation in the divine nature' (2 Peter 1:4) implies that individual identity is retained. Indeed, when creatures enter into the life of the Trinity, they also enter into the life of all other creatures in union with the divine. The result is a sort of perichoresis of creature with creature, as well as creature with Creator. There is no absorption, and hence dissolution of the integrity of the creature. The otherness of the Persons within the Trinitarian life guarantees the integrity of creatures within the same Trinitarian life." Christian Metaphysics: Trinity, Incarnation and Creation - T. A. Mahoney (26/12/07), P.8. - Internet.
For Baruch Spinoza, God is the totality of everything that is. God is that rational system whose existence he held to be guaranteed by the certainty of mathematical knowledge. Spinoza's theory of everything is therefore set out in his writings in a pseudo-mathematical style purporting to outline the nature of God as the totality of All That Is. Spinoza's theorems are short on the first two members of the Trinity, and therefore he was criticized for being a Pantheist, to whom nature and everything is God, rather than merely in God (Panentheism), or only under God (Monarchism).
Far from being constrained by the absolutes of his eternal being, which are synthetic a priori categories of understanding in their own right, God expresses, manifests, and fulfils himself in the Trinity Absolute, which frees him from all limitation.
Kant confirmed that in this life, we cannot directly know the "thing-in-itself," with respect to God. Schopenhauer added that always the intellect interposes between the objective reality and the subjective individual, between the idol and the thing-in-itself, between the universe and God.
Referring to the divine mystery, some philosophers have concluded that we may know God is, but we don't know quite what He is, i.e. the 'substance' of God is beyond our comprehension. Or is it? The synopsis of world religions mapping onto the Trinity Absolute outlined in this book may be a good start in developing a unified understanding of the basically threefold multi-dimensional nature of God, as revealed by the evidence.
Being One, it would be impossible for God to be other, unless that other is somehow part of Himself. For God, there is only thrice-personal Self. God knows no other, and there is no God but God. Creation is only explained with the conception of One God in the Trinity of the Three Absolutes of Creation, and this makes that Trinity a scientific as well as philosophical inevitability. Apparently this self-sufficient 'good idea' or 'universal' amounts to a past-eternal and future-permanent divine 'essence' of self-existence, providing a core of goodness for the eternal formation and unification of all that is.
In the final analysis, this Trinity manifestation of One God exists by virtue of His triune will-to-goodness, as the only adequate expression of the multi-dimensional divine nature.
The Greek philosophers were right to concentrate on the fundamental problem of being: "the one and the many." The 'trick' is to realize that the One and the Many are synthesized and consummated in the unconditioned totality of All That Is.
In spiritual terms, that consummation is paralleled in the Holy Ghost of Christianity (neither the Father, nor the Son, but the Holy Spirit proceeding from both), as well as the Destroyer/Consummator of Hinduism, and the neither/nor Unconditioned Nirvana consciousness, which Buddha called the middle way (analogous to the great way or Tao of yin/yang, encompassing all that is).
In physical terms, that consummation is reflected in the science of quantum entanglement and the qubit (neither 1 nor 0, but 1&0), which gets into probabilities indicative of a dimension of freedom complementing our otherwise totally deterministic science.
That consummation reaches its ultimate expression as the third member of the Trinity Absolute - synthesis of the Deity Absolute Creator and Universe Absolute Supreme Being, in the holistic concept of All That Is (God and not-God, theology and science).
The ancients believed that in the beginning was the differentiation of heaven and earth, from chaos or the void. Modern astronomers tell us that the universe is expanding, and proponents of the "Big Bang" theory calculate that it all started from an apparently infinitesimal point of infinite density about 14 billion years ago. Prior to that infinitesimal 'singularity' there was "undifferentiated sameness indistinguishable from nothingness," or perhaps merely nothing but unimagined force potentials of ineffable pre-energy/matter.
Idealists theorize that at that primordial point where space and time meet, there was a breakthrough, and God achieved 'critical mass' in terms of conceptual systematic unity. Seeing that it was good, the Creator-consciousness released and set free his dream creatures and creations. The Primogenitor 'let go' and became his creatures, participating with them in their creations, which seems to have been the intention all along.
According to the experts, time and space had a beginning that corresponds to the origin of energy and matter. The 'singularity' did not appear in space, rather space began inside the singularity, which seems to have appeared out of nowhere for reasons just as mysterious and unknown as the origin of potentials and reason itself.
It would seem that there may never have been a 'time' when the Deity Absolute was not the Primogenitor or Creator of the Supreme Being or Oversoul, as well as co-sponsor and coordinate of their Ultimate Unconditioned Spiritperson of destiny. Then, in the beginning was not the void, but the Trinity of One God, at least conceptually and potentially. Out of these potentials emerged the existentially necessary Deity Absolute and the experientially contingent Universe Absolute, propelled and pulled along by the ultimately possible Unconditioned Absolute - that inscrutable spirit/person - the Holy Ghost.
On the other hand, perhaps there may have been a "time before time" when the divine consciousness thought and pondered within itself, gradually realizing itself in the eternal hypostasis of Trinity absolute, supreme, and ultimate; until the unbearable goodness of its potential being exploded in the origin of actual time and space, etc. From out of this singularity of goodness - generating and generated by an agony of divine longing and a frenzy of sublime dream creations - came prime energy, matter, and their interaction based on the immutable abstract metaphysical constant - Trinity.
In psychological terms, Trinity is conceived as One God manifest in three phases or expressions, united in spirit and universal in mind, but especially integrated in multi-dimensional personality. The Trinity could hardly be three souls, as that would constitute three Gods, contradicting the unity of God.
If God has only one soul, then psychologically, the Trinity must refer to the personality or persona of that Soul being threefold, for the mind of God must be universal and the spirit must be united. Then logically, we can say that God is "one" in essence of universal mind and cosmic spirit, but "three" in personality. More properly, the three spirit-persons of the Trinity are unified in "One" God.
The Many must be a reflection of what the One is, and if there is only One, there can be no other, except it be within the nature and purview of the One. Then, somewhat as the son reflects the father, so the threefold human soul might be expected to reflect the Trinity, with due allowance for the 'perichoresis' or procession of psychological factors. If so, then each individual may well have something like a divine spark of their Creator's spirit, united with the spirit of his Supreme Being, and unified in the 'glorified' Spirit of their consummate Unconditioned Absolute Being. Similarly, human souls may also have access to meager portions of the 'universal' mind, and be endowed with attenuated reflections of possible combinations, and probable variations, of the divine personalities.
It should also be noted again that the "trinity" dismissed by Muhammad is not the Christian Holy Trinity, but the old Egyptian trinity of the divine Father/Mother/Son (updated as in Allah/Mary/Jesus) - just the kind of primitive and unfortunate carnal idolatry that Christians also reject. For evidence of this, see Quran 5:116 where Muhammad says, "Keep in mind, when Allah will ask Jesus son of Mary; didst thou say to the people: Take me and my mother for two Gods besides Allah?"
The Trinity Absolute does not undercut Allah, but supports him, by noticing and drawing attention to the integral logic of His personal expressions in major religions. The Trinity is One God reflecting and reflected in the overall unity and abstract symmetry of the expressions of God in Islam, Christianity, and Hinduism, etc. These world religions correspond directly to the three absolutes of metaphysical creation, and indirectly to the threefold psychology of the human soul. These are all expressions of One God, variously called in the first person - Allah, Abba, Brahma, etc.
As the Supreme Allsoul is literally "all souls," so the Absolute is "thrice-personal," and the Spirit is "twice-glorious." Continuing the declension, we might also note that the Deity Absolute is acknowledged to be "first-person" of the Trinity - the primogenitor and to some extent creator of his counterparts; but this already implies the two other personal co-creators of absolute coordinate status, without which the Deity himself would not be himself.
Many Christians find themselves slipping back and forth between personal and impersonal metaphors for understanding the Holy Ghost. Buddhists might say that the Unconditioned is neither personal nor non-personal, but the middle way of Nirvana. For Neo-Confucians, the incomparable Tao is mostly an impersonal (possibly pre-personal) ineffable force of nature.
Zen suggests that timeless primordial "Nothingness" enshrouds and conceals both the Deity Absolute and the Supreme Being. Their spirits seem to be mingling and melding in the Absonite Spirit of that void at one 'moment,' while in the next, they seem to be emerging or differentiating from their mysterious Unconditioned Counterpart, and becoming more personal.
In defense of the mysterious Spirit-Person concept, C. S. Lewis pointed out that when people get together in a family, or a club, or a trade-union, we talk about the 'spirit' of that union. Indeed, in an army, 'espirit de corps' is a widely recognized factor, individual to each unit and again particular to the army as a whole.
It is as if a sort of communal personality came into existence, at each level of association. "Of course, it is not a real person: it is only rather like a person. But that is just one of the differences between God and us. What grows out of the joint life of the Father and Son is a real Person, is in fact the Third of the three Persons who are God." Mere Chrisitanity - C. S. Lewis, P.149.
The "unconditioned" is also known as the purusha or spirit, in Hindu mythology. Purusha is depicted as a giant, who is sacrificed or dismembered and bestowed or "besprinkled" on all things both divine and mundane.
It is said that Purusha (spirit) along with Prakriti (matter) create the necessary Tattvas (truths) for the creation of heaven and earth. Purusha is both immanent in the manifest world, and transcendent to it. Purusha is the Spirit of All That Is and is not, comparable to the unconditioned Nirvana consciousness of Buddhism - neither being, nor non-being, but both (becoming).
God is the original or highest Purusha, but individual spirits (angels) are also Purushas. Humans are indwelt by Purusha - the indwelling spirit witness or guide - "I know him in my heart." (The Purusha Sukta).
In terms of spirit beings, Muslims acclaim the angel Gabriel as God's "special messenger" to Muhammad, while Christians are told that Gabriel was the "annunciator" of the birth of Jesus to Mary. Some Christians also associate the archangel Michael with Jesus, and Hindus recognize a class of semi-divine beings they call Mahadevas.
Just as the Creator Deities of the major religions (Allah, Abba, and Brahma) might be regarded as existential representatives of, or names for, the Deity Absolute; so the super-heroes of religion (Muhammad, Jesus, and Buddha) may be said to be experiential representatives of the Supreme; and similarly, the super-angels or archangels (Gabriel, Michael, and the Holy Ghost or Mahadeva) may be absonite representatives of the Spirit, in a Trinity of religions (Muslim, Christian, and Hindu/Buddhist).
Without the first absolute - the Deity Absolute - there would be no coordinate Absolutes. And without the Deity Absolute there would be no immortal human souls to compose his Universe Allsoul or Supreme Being. But without the Deity Absolute and the Supreme Being there would be no Ultimate Consummator to close the circle of creation. Without reasonable systematic closure, there would be nothing definite.
On the other hand, without the Universe and All That is, the Deity Absolute would be unfulfilled. Christian theology claims that the concept of the "father" nature of God includes ideas of sonship, which are among the highest ideals in the mind of humans; and from Hegel we understand that the highest is the absolute idea, which is God. Thus, we are justified in referring to God as Our Absolute Father. This intensely personal and universal term already implies his Absolute Counterparts in the Trinity, as well as inferring the many "children" of God as Deity Absolute Father, with whom everyone can claim intimate relationship, at least by adoption through his Son and their Spirit.
The Trinity Absolute concept gives a thorough-going rational account of the creation, ranging from metaphysics and physics to psychology and theology. By psychology, we mean the personality, mind, and spirit of the individual and collective soul. By theology, we mean the basic attitudes of the soul to the absolute reflected in world religions, which we observe come with three distinct 'personae' or characteristics, and consist in three similar but slightly different spirit flavours.
These three personal religious 'attitudes to the absolute' are rationally universal and spiritually united, as befitting the personal freedom and spiritual dignity of the rational soul of all humanity. This Supreme Allsoul is conceived to be coordinate with the Creator, and Consummator in the Trinity of One God, as best we can understand that God, based on the "evidence" we see around us.
Quantum fluctuation theory has introduced the "undetermined" qubit (neither 1 nor 0, but 1&0), which is just where freedom seems to enter our otherwise totally deterministic science. This is challenging, but edifying because it points to what we have already concluded from experience and reason, i.e. freewill; which is the distinguishing prerogative of the human soul composed of personality, mind, and indwelling spirit.
So, it would seem that we are free to adopt any one, any combination, or all of the attitudes represented by major religions and their variations. Or we can reject all religious attitudes - but this is a species of spiritual suffocation (materialism), leaving the individual with belittled conscience, and no faith in absolutely universal moral law, let alone any explanation for his own existence.
Universal mind (pure and practical reason) is the steadiest component of the soul, followed closely by freely united spirit, and complemented (enlivened) by distinctly characteristic personality. Judgment and the executive power of the human soul involves and depends on all three.
The personality is not the 'Monarch' of the human soul, but shares executive powers with his coequal coordinates - the mind and spirit. Plato had a vision of the impetuous personality, as a horse yoked to the dependable spirit, getting out of the control of the rational mind (driver), resulting in the will of the personality to some extent taking over the direction of the chariot (soul). Plato tended to regard mind and sometimes spirit as the natural 'sovereign' of the human soul. Hegel held that 'geist' or spirit-mind is the essence of the absolute (soul), and Kant concluded that pure reason informs, but practical reason decides the will (of the spirit-person).
Both intuition and reason tell us that there must be a systematic unity to reality, or nothing would exist. If ideas may be said to have power, then it stands to reason that there must be some systematic unity of ideas, some overarching identity that ties together all reality - some absolute value, some comprehensive idea, which closes the circle of creation. Otherwise, it is difficult to see how there could be something, rather than nothing, and why there would be anything at all - even a dream struggling for coherence.
Then, there must be one simple but elegant all-inclusive idea that provides a metaphysical foundation (Kantian "transcendental argument" or Platonist "rational account") for creation, out of nothing but pure and practical reason itself.
Science has peered inside matter to find that ultimately it is not modeled on the solar system as with the classical atoms, but on the relation of three sets of quarks. This gets into the theory of "quantum entanglement" or superposition of particle pairs which behave as "single entities." These are described mathematically as "qubits" (1&0) asserting the value of a disjunctive antinomical third coordinate (the aggregate or synthesis), without specifying the values of the disjuncts separately. This brings in quantum uncertainty, but gives systematic freedom grounded in synthesis (1&0) added to the dialectical perspective (1) or (0). Of course, this may be just where our otherwise totally deterministic science makes room for freewill creation.
In terms of that creation, consider the ontological antinomy of necessary being and contingent existence, i.e. if anything exists, then something exists necessarily; versus nothing exists necessarily, all is an infinite regress of causes. This seems to be an expression of complete opposites. Nevertheless, it has been shown that by the laws of contradiction, both may in fact be true, and ultimately compatible, if taken in different respects or looked at from different viewpoints.
Likewise, the universe may be regarded as both finite and infinite, having a certain beginning in one sense, and no definite beginning when looked at in another way. Similarly, freedom and determination may both be true, but merely different perspectives. In general, if the great antinomies are simultaneously related in a systematic unity, then their synthesis itself is a third truth, which is neither the one nor the other, but a coordinate composition and powerful transformation of both.
The triune 'creation' may be rationalized as heaven and earth united in the grand cosmos, centered on Paradise, reflected in the universes of space and time, spiritualized by the sublime totality of all that is, and trinitized in Absolute, Supreme, and Ultimate Being.
That something as ephemeral as an idea could create an absolute polarity of potential force, having solid results in energy and matter, might seem at first glance to be a rather tenuous metaphysical explanation. However, in the last analysis, the inescapable 'gravity' of the immutable absolute ideas and concepts of pure reason may be the essence of self-existence in the intelligible, transcendent, eternal, existential, noumenal realm which underlies the empirical, immanent, temporal, experiential, phenomenal reality.
Although there can be only One God over all, in order to create anything, He would have to bestow something of Himself on that thing, and ultimately on all things. To create Himself out of nothing but Himself, He would have to be two, at least in some respects; and those two would ultimately have to join in three, in order to close the circle of One God, in mutual and manifold relations.
To be three in One, the inner nature of God must inevitably be threefold in at least one of his psychological characteristics - spirit, mind, or personality. It is difficult to see how any coherent reality could exist if God were of more than one (united) spirit and one (rational) mind. In that case there would be at least three Gods. On the other hand, One God could very well be manifest in three personalities - like the distinctions among world religions - different in personality character, but similar in spirit flavour, and the same in reason, as already implied by the large areas of agreement amongst the core beliefs of the major religions.
The abstract proposition that while God is a unity, his personal nature and his creation, in its broadest sense, must be at least threefold is a logically inescapable metaphysical necessity, and thus the idea of Trinity is a philosophical inevitability, as the only adequate assumption or postulate upon which to construct a balanced explanation of heaven, earth, and all that is (heaven and earth).
Trinity allows God to escape the awful fetters of His absoluteness, and to blossom in splendid colours of transcendence, immanence, and ultimacy. Trinity composes the circle of creation in a pre/post-ultimate triumph of pure and practical reason, constituting the necessary metaphysical basis of itself in three phases. Pythagoras and Aristotle called "3" the beautiful, magical, 'perfect number' because it closes the circle of creation in the triunity of one, many, and all - made out of nothing but the rational idea of themselves and each other - comprehensive and complete unto itself.
It is impossible to think that evil is the grand constructive principle of creation. We can only think that the systematic unity of the principle of the 'good' could possibly have sufficient coherence to be the secret of creation. Then, the 'form of the good' extolled by Plato and others may be thought of as the characteristic goodwill of the individual persons of the Trinity of One God manifest as the absolutely Good Creator, his superbly Supreme Being, and their sublimely Glorious Spirit.
Alternatively, the 'form of the good' may be regarded as a threefold characteristic of the good, super, and sublime Trinity in its manifold or 'corporate' identity, as a unified whole; in which all three divine persons participate in a free harmony of good judgment, made all the better by its multi-dimensionality, i.e. Trinity is the form of the Good.
Therefore, it should be no surprise that the psychological nature of the human soul would also be threefold, reflecting the Trinity as its only adequate metaphysical vehicle. There is certainly a long tradition that the human soul is threefold - personality, mind, and spirit (see Chapter 6.0). The Trinity is projected onto and reflected in the psychology of the human soul, experienced as a triunity of: (1) personality or ego self-consciousness, (2) mind or id - conscious and unconscious, and (3) spirit or superego - mostly unconscious, even superconscious.
What is somewhat astounding is the deep-seated and pervasive evidence that the Trinity is mirrored in world religions, as three absolute spirit-personae united in the soul of One God. Even though we may have suspected all along that the major religions are all just different views of the "Same God," it seemed too simplistic or contrived, and too subversive of orthodoxy to be true, until examined closely.
But in fact, speaking colloquially, Allah, Abba (Father, as Jesus called Him), and Brahma may be said to be a world representation of the first person of the Trinity Absolute. Then, in a constructive world-view: east, west, and far-east religions present a threefold understanding of One God manifest primarily in Muslim and Jewish intuition of the Deity Absolute Creator, Christian and Hindu conception of the Supreme Being, and Hindu/Buddhist/Taoist apprehension of the Destiny Consummator or Unconditioned Spirit Tao of All That Is. Together with their variations and combinations in Shinto, Sikh, Jain, B'hai, and other major religions, this Trinity concept reflects and expresses the collective human understanding of God.
Muslims and Christians must ask themselves, who wants to deny that Allah (Abba) is the Deity Absolute Creator, when both Muhammad and Jesus made a revelation of that? Secondly, who cannot accept that these human beings are true complements of that same Deity Absolute, expressing Universe Absolute Supreme Being (they are who they say they are)? And thirdly, who cannot begin to see the divine dignity of their Unconditioned Absolute Spirit, insofar as it is also expressed in the other major religions of the world, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Taoism?
Religious Pluralism and the rational recognition of One God apprehended in the major world religions is not surrender to a colourless culture of homogenized religion, that is neither hot nor cold, neither one thing nor the other. Rather, it is a creative affirmation of the multidimensional reality that is One God, as humankind perceives that Absolute One from three basic points of view - emphasizing one, or other, or both - existential, experiential, and their conjoined unconditioned consciousness.
The pre-eminence of the concept of Triunity is confirmed by the intrinsically three-dimensional nature of space (length, breadth, depth), the experientially three-fold nature of time (past, present, future), the energetically three-phase composition of matter (electron, proton, neutron), the physically three-state existence of matter (solid, liquid, gas), the psychologically three-part nature of the human soul (personality, mind, spirit), as well as the three basic attitudes of religion towards the Absolute (Allah, Abba, Brahma).
Is there anything more frugal than the simple but basic triangle, the explanatory power of which should by no means be disparaged on account of the fact that three (3) is simply the first number defining the metaphysics of space, time, energy, matter, the nature of the soul, and the attitudes of religion? Truly, three is fundamental.
Therefore, it should not be surprising to find that "three" is the first systematic foundation for the recognition and understanding of the quantum metaphysics of creation, as already revealed in the undetermined qubit (neither 1, nor 0, but 1&0) of quantum computing.
However, it is somewhat surprising that in terms of theology, we find three fundamental religious responses in human psychology reflecting the make-up of the Trinity buried in the sometimes confusing and contradictory terminology of the Muslim, Christian, Hindu and other religions. As has been demonstrated, these religions are implicit and explicit variations on three basic psychological-cultural worldviews or attitudes.
We find this personalized in the Christian Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, as well as the Hindu Trimurti of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva; with other religions emphasizing one, or other, or some combination of the three absolute coordinates.
It has been said that Muslims believe in One God as Allah the Absolute; and Christians recognize One God as Abba - the Deity Absolute Father of his Universe Absolute Son, and co-sponsor of their Unconditioned Absolute Holy Spirit. Similarily, Hindus worship many gods symbolized in the One Godhead - Brahma - portrayed as three faces representing the Hindu Trimurti composed of the Deity Absolute Creator, Universe Absolute Preserver, and Unconditioned Absolute Destroyer (Consummator). This Hindu Trinity is also known as Bhagavan, Paramatman, and Brahman.
Interestingly, while Brahma is not much worshipped anymore, most Hindus believe that it is really Vishnu "who takes the designation of Brahma/Vishnu/Shiva," and for many others it is Shiva who is identified with "the 'Trika'…namely Para (the Supreme), Apara (the Non-Supreme), and Parapara (the Supreme-Non-Supreme)." An Introduction to Hinduism - G. Flood, P.111&168.
Historically, Buddhism is an offshoot or development of Hinduism, and it should be noted that in prominent schools of Hindu thought, Gautama Buddha is said to be the ninth (9th) avatar or incarnation of the Hindu God Vishnu.
"At this time, reminded of the Kali age, the god Vishnu became born as Gautama, the Shakyamuni, and taught the Buddhist dharma for ten years." Bhavishya Purana (188.8.131.52-37).
This is our authority for including Buddhism as a variation of Hinduism which maps directly onto the third member of the Trinity Absolute, with Buddha as a counterpart to Muhammad and Jesus.
Thus in terms of the Islamic, Christian, and Hindu/Buddhist religions the three persons of the Trinity of One God may be characterized as:
1) Allah/Abba/Brahma - transcendent existential Deity Absolute Creator,
2) Muhammad/Jesus/Buddha - immanent experiential Supreme Being,
3) Gabriel/Michael/Mahadeva - associative unconditioned Spiritperson.
The 'second coming' expected in many religions may be personalized in the gestalt of human consciousness or Allsoul represented by Muhammad/Jesus/Buddha, in their future incarnation as Mahdi/Messiah/Maitreya or Kalki, descending as the Supreme Being, with the glory and power of the Spirit of Destiny Consummation or ultimate reality, who/which will probably turn out to be Allah/Abba/Brahma glorified in the Unconditioned Spirit of the Absolute and the Supreme.
If "you and your gods create each other" in any meaningful sense, then something like this consummate and coherent interpretation of major religions could very well be a true metaphysical blueprint for world peace, based on the inclusive ideas of religious pluralism, rather than on the exclusive dogmas of failed orthodoxy. Building on the large areas of practical agreement we've already got makes good sense, because the beliefs of the major world religions lend themselves altogether fittingly to a universal worldview, despite some points of opposition having to do with personal attitudes, when looked at closely.
"According to Zen, we are too much of a slave to the conventional way of thinking, which is dualistic through and through. No 'interpenetration' (nor interpretation) is allowed, there takes place no fusing of opposites in our everyday logic." Essays in Buddhism - D. T. Suzuki, P.269.
There is an abundance of cogent evidence that the diversity of major religions is a more or less clear reflection of the multi-dimensional divine life. Same God - unified in spirit, universal in mind, and manifest in distinctive personal attitudes characteristic of the world's major religions.
The limitless explanatory scope and elegant coherence of the Trinity Absolute concept is of such good universal philosophical implications, that it would seem to be a closer view of the true nature of God, even if many of the serendipitous ramifications of the abstract concept can never be "proven" beyond a doubt, nor fully explored.
"Same God!" - the great religions are different in personality, but similar in spirit; so that together with universal mind, they may be conceived as the 'soul' of One God.
Integral Religious Pluralism recommends itself as the only adequate metaphysical vehicle of rational religion, politics, and world peace.
Samuel Stuart Maynes
Surrey, B.C., Canada
Posted to: www.trinityabsolute.com, August 2017.
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